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ISSN 0048-3796

Volume 49 (December 2018)



Investigating the status of English as a lingua franca in Southeast Asia: Intelligibility and comprehensibility of ASEAN Englishes among Filipino college students 


Jeff B. Roxas
University of Santo Tomas, Manila




As the Philippines sustains stronger ties with its neighboring Southeast Asian countries in the age of ASEAN integration, the ability to accommodate to one’s variety of English through word and meaning recognition is essential for international understanding. This paper examines the level of intelligibility and comprehensibility of ASEAN Englishes and the factors that influence their understanding. To collect data, the study used cloze and comprehension tests from three listening passages and a semi-structured interview conducted among 47 liberal arts students. The findings showed that ASEAN Englishes are 85.32% intelligible and 87.94% comprehensible. The high rates denote that the use of shared nonstandard pronunciation features enhanced understanding. Listener and textual factors also proved to be among the factors of understanding. Hence, this suggests that there is an emerging lingua franca within the ASEAN region. Mutual intelligibility, therefore, may help speakers to establish a common identity as an ASEAN community and to bring effective cross-cultural communication during ELF interaction.


Keywords: ASEAN Englishes, English as a Lingua Franca, Intelligibility, Comprehensibility


The role of second person pronouns in expressing social behavior: An undocumented case in Zamboanga Chavacano


Gefilloyd L. De Castro
Zamboanga State College of Marine Sciences and Technology



Studies in the use of second person pronouns with respect to the addressee are typically associated with the expression of politeness, formality, solidarity, and social distance. No study has ever been conducted yet relative to the expression of emotion. To add to the growing body of literature in sociolinguistics, this study investigated the undocumented role of the Zamboanga Chavacano second person singular (2SG) pronouns in expressing mood and other kinds of social behavior (i.e., interactive social distance, familiarity, formality, and politeness) with respect to the addressees’ social status. Mixed methods were employed in this study. Data used for this study included naturally occurring data, direct observation of everyday interaction, and survey responses from 106 Chavacano speakers. This study revealed overwhelming linguistic phenomena relative to social behavior and social status. The choice of 2SG exhibits typical mood, familiarity, politeness, respect, and formality. The intrusion of non-Chavacano pronoun in the pronominal system is also evident. The pronoun shift or alteration is caused by anger or annoyance, as well as interactive social distance.

Keywords: Chavacano, pronoun, social behavior, Zamboanga City
ISO 639-3 language codes:

Linguistic politeness strategies in classroom interactions: 
An exploratory mixed methods study 


Karen Joy B. Umila
University of the Cordilleras
University of Baguio, Baguio City



This study aimed to explore the politeness strategies used by teachers in classroom interaction and the effectiveness of these strategies in the learning process of students in the Ifugao context. In the qualitative phase, the linguistic aspect of politeness was transcribed and classified further using Brown and Levinson’s model. Thereafter, a survey-questionnaire instrument for students was developed to determine the effectiveness of the politeness strategies used by teachers and transition to the quantitative phase of the study. In general, the findings revealed that teachers used all the four politeness strategies in motivating, presenting lessons and discussions, managing the class, and evaluating the students. The teachers’ use of positive politeness strategies was appropriate and hence effective in all the aspects of classroom interaction. However, from the perspective of the students, a combination of negative politeness, positive politeness, and bald-on record strategies was highly effective. As an output, a model for the effective use of politeness strategies in classroom interaction was developed to provide a perspective on how effective politeness strategies could be localized in the Ifugao context.

Keywords: linguistic politeness, politeness strategies, classroom interaction

Bilingual essay/Sanaysay sa dalawang wika: Agenda for sociolinguistics in the Philippines for the 21st century



Ariane Macalinga Borlongan
Tokyo University of Foreign Studies



It is often said that the Philippines is a good laboratory for the study of sociolinguistics. Indeed, linguists from the Philippines have produced outstanding work on language planning, multilingualism, bilingual education, language attitudes, code-switching, and world Englishes in the last century. Summaries of what has been accomplished thus far by Philippine sociolinguistics are found in Gonzalez (1985) and Sibayan (1984). In this essay, I wish to draw upon this excellent tradition of sociolinguistics scholarship in the Philippines in the 20th century to define the agenda for research for the 21st century. 


Palaging nasasabi na ang Pilipinas ay mainam na pook-saliksikan para sa pag-aaral ng dalubwikang-panlipunan. Tunay nga, ang mga dalubwika ng Pilipinas ay nakagawa ng mga mahahalagang saliksik ukol sa pagpaplano ng wika, multilinggwalismo, mga saloobing pangwika, paglilipat-koda, at mga Inggles ng daigdig. Ang mga buod ng kung ano man ang natapos na ng dalubwikang-panlipunan sa Pilipinas sa ngayon ay matatagpuan sa Gonzalez (1985) at Sibayan (1984). Sa sanaysay na ito, hinihiling kong sumalok mula sa kasiya-siyang tradisyon ng karurungan sa dalubwikang-panlipunan sa Pilipinas sa ika-20 siglo sa aking pagsubok na tukuyin ang layunin sa pananaliksik sa ika-21 siglo.




Ee Ling Low and Anne Pakir (Eds.). 2017. World Englishes: Rethinking paradigms. London: Routledge. ISBN 13: 9781138673076. 



Mikhail Alic C. Go
De La Salle University



The phenomenon that is world Englishes (WE) has been embraced (fully or otherwise) by scholars worldwide ever since it was first introduced in the 1970s by Braj Kachru. The field has been steadily growing as more work on the Englishes is being done. That being said, there is a need to rethink, reimagine, and reassess traditional paradigms to make sure that the concept of WE is still viable and sustainable in the present times. World Englishes: Rethinking Paradigms is an attempt to do so exactly. 




Annual Report for 2018