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ISSN 0048-3796

Volume 48 (December 2017)





Domains of Language Use among Gaddang Speakers
in Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines

Zayda S. Asuncion
University of Santo Tomas, España, Manila, The Philippines
Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, The Philippines

Marilu Rañosa Madrunio, Ph.D.
University of Santo Tomas, España, Manila, The Philippines

As a sociolinguistic study, this paper investigated domains of language use among Gaddang speakers, a multilingual ethnic group in the northern part of the Philippines and its possible differences in using Gaddang, Tagalog/Filipino, Ilocano, and English in the public and internal domains considering geographical area, age, gender, economic status, and educational attainment. There were 568 Gaddang speakers who participated in the study. Employing survey questionnaire to gather quantitative data and a semi-structured interview to support quantitative results, the study revealed that the Gaddang speakers used Gaddang, Tagalog, Ilocano, and English in the public and internal domains, but the dominant language preferred is Tagalog. Significant differences in domains of language use were apparent in terms of geographical area, age, socio economic status, and educational attainment in the use of Gaddang and English in the public domain. In the internal domain, the Gaddang speakers vary in their use of Gaddang, Ilocano, Tagalog, and English considering geographical area, age, socio economic status, and educational attainment. Significant implications on two linguistic phenomena such as language maintenance and language shift can be deduced from the results.

Exploring the role of L2 in L1 writing:
Clues from English teachers’ Think Aloud Protocols


Joel M. Torres
De La Salle University, Manila/Central Luzon State University, Science City of Muñoz

Eden R. Flores, PhD
 De La Salle University, Manila

In the past, the ESL/EFL field has intensively explored the effects of L1 to L2, yet overlooked the possible effects of L2 to L1. Hence, this study is an attempt to offer an initial answer as regards the considerable interest in how bilinguals make use of their language repertoires when engaged in an L1 composing task. Four Filipino English teachers from four senior high schools were asked to compose essays in their L1 (Tagalog). Think Aloud Method was used to identify the roles of L2 (English) during the L1 composing activities and a semi-structured interview was carried out to determine participants’ reasons for language switching. Data from their Think-Aloud Protocols revealed that L2 was adopted as a common strategy during the L1 composing process particularly in text-generating (producing and reviewing the text), idea-generating (planning), idea-organization (planning), task examining, and process-controlling. The amount of L2 use varied with each category of composing activities and among the participants. Participants’ exposure to L2 and the lack of equivalent concepts in L1 made the participants resort to their L2 while writing in their L1. 


Capturing the Language of Flash Fiction:
A Stylistic Analysis of a Filipino-Authored “Short” Short Story


Veronico N. Tarrayo 
University of Santo Tomas, Manila, the Philippines;

The 21st century has witnessed the gradual popularization of flash fiction as a literary genre. However, it has not been extensively explored in literary studies, and most investigations undertaken about it were on genre studies ((Ben-Porat, 2011; Guimarães, 2010; Lucht, 2014; Nelles, 2012; Taha, 2000) and a few on its use in writing pedagogy (Batchelor & King, 2014; Lucht, 2014). In order to add to the increasing number of studies on flash fiction, this paper examines along stylistic lines the flash fiction piece “Bettina” written by Gémino H. Abad, a renowned Filipino author. Using Leech and Short’s (2007) schema, the present study attempts to decipher the language code of the said text in terms of the following features: lexical categories, grammatical categories, figures of speech, and context and cohesion. The implications of the present study for literature and language teaching are also discussed.