A Description of Nominal Phrases in Paranan
Edward Jay M. Quinto & Shirley N. Dita
Paranan belongs to the Northeastern Luzon language family and is spoken by around 16,000 people most of whom live in the coastal municipality of Palanan in Isabela Province. Despite the number of speakers, the language is one of the less documented languages in the Philippines. This paper addresses this gap by describing the structure of nominal phrases in Paranan. Using a corpus of 113,000 words from written and spoken Paranan texts, the paper describes the nominal marking system and structure of nominals in Paranan. Paranan has two primary nominal markers: determiners and demonstratives. Pluralization in Paranan is marked by the use of the plural marker hidi, which may either be postnominal or prenominal. Besides gender, properties of common nouns, and borrowed nouns, Paranan has at least seven types of derived nouns. Other aspects of Paranan grammar warrant further investigation.
Examining the Language in the Courtroom Interrogation
of Vulnerable and Non-Vulnerable Witnesses
Virna Villanueva & Marilu Rañosa Madrunio
Testifying in court is a stressful experience for witnesses, most especially to abused children. One of the reasons that makes this experience more difficult is the manner of questioning of some lawyers. Recognizing the need to examine this use of language in the cross-examination of vulnerable witnesses, this paper sought to identify the types of questions commonly used by lawyers and the kinds of replies usually given by witnesses. This descriptive study employed a mixed paradigm design as it applies qualitative and quantitative analysis to the corpus consisting of 1,866 questions and 1,811 replies in the transcript of stenographic notes. The study also employed semi-structured interviews. Findings reveal that for both the vulnerable and non-vulnerable witnesses, the types of questions most frequently asked are the close-ended leading questions, yes/no and tags. One type of close-ended question, the wh- question, is also frequently used. In terms of replies, both vulnerable and non-vulnerable witnesses give the same types of replies with compliance mostly being employed. All these findings show that leading and forceful questions commonly used in cross-examinations might deter the child witnesses from telling the real truth. Some lawyers could, therefore, attend more training in investigating child-related cases while courtroom conditions deterring the child witnesses from confidently answering the lawyers’ questions should be improved.
Cross-linguistic influence in bilingual learners: Implications for mother tongue-based multilingual education in the Philippines
Aireen L. Barrios
The Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education in the Philippines requires children to learn the mother tongue, in addition to Filipino and English, in elementary school. Acquiring Filipino as a second language (L2) from a first language (L1) background is not a major challenge for most Filipino children since almost all Philippine languages share the ergative actancy structure. Speakers of accusative Chabacano in Zamboanga City show an exception. In grammaticality judgments and picture description tasks, fifty 7-8-year-old L1 Chabacano learners overgeneralized case marking patterns in Filipino, revealing cross-linguistic influence. An SLA model for bilingual groups of learners with typologically different L1 and L2s argues for ‘grammatical consciousness-raising’ particularly within the first three grades in the elementary. Target grammatical structures can be taught implicitly and explicitly through adequate and meaningful classroom and parental language input within the threshold at which learners have already developed some degree of ability to use the L2.
The Speech Acts of Virtual Academic Debating on Facebook
Hjalmar Punla Hernandez
Research traditions in sociolinguistics are provided with new empirical trajectories by computer-mediated communication (Androutsopoulos, 2006). Grounded on the speech acts framework, this study investigated the speech acts of virtual academic debating on Facebook as online speech community. It sought to answer these questions: (1) What speech acts emerge in virtual academic debating on Facebook in terms of locutions, illocutions, and perlocutions?; and (2) What merits and/or complexities does virtual academic debating on Facebook reveal towards the participants?. Ten freshman tertiary level students, selected through purposive sampling, participated in the study. Academic debate speeches served as primary sources of data which were coded. Accordingly, all speech acts transpired in academic debating on Facebook. New locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary acts also developed. As it is both meritorious and complex, the study therefore asserts the positive affordance of speech acts of virtual academic debating. Further speech acts studies in the context of CMC should be innovated focusing on other aspects such as different genres or devising a speech acts model of virtual academic debating.
Multilingualism, Multilingual Education, and the English Language: Voices of Public School Teachers
Arceli M. Amarles
In contexts where decision making is highly centralized, policies on language and/in education are mostly formulated by officials of the Department or Ministry of Education. Hardly is the voice of ordinary public school teachers who are at the forefront of implementing any educational or language policy heard because they are only seen as implementers of any policy. But should their voices remain muted? Following the bottom-up approach and drawing from narratives of public school teachers, this paper argues that for an efficient formulation and implementation of language and/in education policy, teachers’ voices must be heard. Through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with public school teachers in seven regional centres in the Philippines, it aims to find out what these teachers have to say about the following themes: (1) multilingualism in the country; (2) the mother-tongue-based multilingual education (MTBMLE), an integral component of the Philippine government’s K + 12 enhanced basic education system; and (3) the role that the English language plays in education in the light of the multilingual nature of the country and the implementation of MTB-MLE.
Trilingual Code-switching Using Quantitative Lenses:
An Exploratory Study on Hokaglish
Wilkinson Daniel Wong Gonzales
Adopting a quantitative approach, this paper highlights findings of an exploratory study on Hokaglish, initially describing it as a trilingual code-switching phenomenon involving Hokkien, Tagalog, and English in a Filipino-Chinese enclave in Binondo, Manila, the Philippines. Departing from the (socio)linguistic landscape of the archipelagic nation, the discussion eventually leads to a frequency-based description of this phenomenon. Preliminary findings suggest that, in Hokaglish, code-switching from Hokkien to English appears to be the most frequent code-switching combination among the six possible ones and that it is typically found in religious institutions. From the investigation, Hokaglish yielded more attestations of intrasentential code-switching than intersentential ones in households particularly. Moreover, findings also indicate that switches in the word-level are very frequent and that morphological code-switching is virtually non-existent in Hokaglish conversations. The paper ends with a discussion that will more or less provide some justification for the findings.
Why English? Confronting the Hydra [Book review]
Neslie Carol C. Tan
LSP ANNUAL REPORT FOR 2016