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Volume 42 (December 2011)





Taglish and the Social Role of Code Switching in the Philippines

Lenny Kaye Bugayong


It is a truism that English is deeply entrenched in Filipino everyday life. This paper concerns itself with the coexistence of English alongside Tagalog in the contexts of bilingualism, code switching and diglossia by taking into account that the two languages are seldom clearly distinguished within authentic Filipino speech patterns. In particular, a closer look at the mixed variety commonly referred to as―Taglish (i.e. Tagalog and English) on a phonetic, morphological, syntactic and discursive level revealed that, while there is no emerging grammaticalization of Taglish, it is neither a matter of incomplete command of either language nor of idiosyncratic choices. Rather, Taglish is a discursive strategy within a social norm, very much similar to Low-varieties in diglossic language situations.


Tonal Geography of the Provinces of Central Thailand: Part I1

Kritsana Canilao


Thai is a tonal language in which each syllable has a distinctive lexical tone. Central Thai not only consists of Bangkok Thai but also other varieties spoken in various provinces in the central region of Thailand. This study investigates four varieties of Central Thai spoken in Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi, Phetchaburi, and Prachuap Khiri Khan. The focus is on tone variation. The following are the locations of the study: Amphoe Bo Ploy in Kanchanaburi province: Amphoe Damnoen Saduak in Ratchaburi province: Amphoe Cha-am in Phetchaburi province: and Amphoe Bang Saphan in Prachuap Khiri Khan province. To obtain reliable results, three native informants who were over 40 years of age were selected from each Amphoe (District) to be interviewed on general subjects for at least one and a half hours. One informant ...



The Structure of Ibanag Nominals

Shirley N. Dita


This paper takes off from Dita‘s (2011) discussion of Ibanag nominal markers. Since a prototypical noun phrase contains a determiner and a head noun, this paper describes the nouns in Ibanag. Using a 250,000-word religious and literary Ibanag texts, the following properties of nominals have been presented: number, gender, and morphological formation. There are two ways of pluralization process in Ibanag: the use of the plural marker ira and reduplication. Aside from the gender, the properties of common nouns, and the borrowed ones, there are eight types of derived nouns discussed in this paper.


Tagalog Particles in Philippine English: The Case of Ba, Na, No, and Pa

JooHyuk Lim and Ariane Macalinga Borlongan


This paper reports on corpus-based case analyses of "ba" , "na" , and "pa"  when these enclitic particles are inserted in Philippine English texts. The corpus exploration made also furthers on Bautista‘s (2011) initial investigation of "no"  in Philippine English, because she has considered the focal word to be a pragmatic particle in the variety of English in the Philippines. The analyses made for this paper were on ICE-PH with the aid of WordSmith Tools 5.0. "Ba"  was shown to alternate with auxiliary inversion in Philippine English yes-no  questions and intensify the interrogative force of wh- questions where auxiliary inversions necessarily take place. "Na"  and "pa"  also allow for alternative variants in the expression of various meanings in Philippine English, continuity, recentness, tentativeness, and urgency, among others. Lastly, "no" was seen to be functioning in place of the very frequent English tag questions in Philippine English, which are morphosyntactically more complicated.


The Objective and Subjective Assessments of the Ethnolinguistic Vitality of Batak Communites in Palawan, Philippines

Teresita D. Tajolosa


Headland (2003) listed Batak as one of the 32 Negrito languages in the Philippines which are endangered, while Eder (1987) declared the Batak as a ―disappearing tribe‖. The present study aimed to investigate the ethnolinguistic vitality of three Batak communities and to predict whether language maintenance or shift will prevail in Sitio Kalakwasan in Brgy. Tanabag, Sitio Mangapin in Brgy. Langogan, and Sitio Riyandakan in Brgy. Maoyon, City of Puerto Princesa. The study draws on the social identity theory by Tajfel and Turner (1986), Giles, Bourhis & Rosenthal‘s (1977) theory of ethnolinguistic vitality, Bourhis‘ (1979) ethnolinguistic vitality model, and Allard and Landry‘s (1987) macroscopic model of bilingualism...


Non-prototypical Patient Object Sentences in Chinese

Yongzhong Yang


 This article aims to look into non-prototypical patient object sentences in Chinese in the framework of generative grammar. Based on a full description of the syntactic phenomenon, the article attempts to explain how non-prototypical patient constituents occur as non-prototypical patient objects in dynamic object positions and what syntactic conditions they are subject to. The material object and the instrument object differ from each other due to their different degree of patientiveness and hierarchy of abstractness, which can be testified in the transformation of passive constructions, object extraction, the use of aspect markers, adverbs, and modal particles. As non-prototypical patient objects, however, both the material object and the instrument object must conform to the condition of V`-Reanalysis.


Book Review

Frances Doplon




ISSN 0048-3796